sábado, 25 de junio de 2016

Stonehenge from the Air: Aerial View of an Ancient Landscape

MegalithomaniaUK. Aerial footage of Stonehenge and the mounds in its landscape. Filmed just before the Summer Solstice 2016.

Vídeo añadido a PaleoVídeos > L.R.2.10 nº 40. 

Many thousands of years ago life flourished in the Gobi desert

1/5. Flint deposits in Flint Valley. Photo by J. Szykulski
Many thousands of years ago life flourished in the Mongolian Gobi desert. Archaeologists from Wrocław discovered traces of a rich settlement from the period of the Stone Age. Prof. Józef Szykulski told PAP about the results of the excavations. 

Currently, the Gobi is the second largest desert area in the world. The area is completely devoid of road infrastructure and inhabited only by a few nomadic families. The study shows, however, that many thousands of years ago, the conditions in the area were more favourable to life than now.

Archaeologists found many traces of old camps - said in an interview with PAP Prof. Józef Szykulski from the Institute of Archaeology, University of Wroclaw, who leads the project together with Prof. Mirosław Masojć.

Camps were located on the shores of lakes - now dried. Based on the findings, researchers concluded that thousands of years ago richness of species of animals lived in the study area, benefiting the ancient inhabitants of the desert.

Archaeologists discovered mainly stone tools and the waste associated with their production. "Varied forms of discovered products and different techniques of processing raw stone confirm that the individual sites had been repeatedly inhabited in different periods of history" - added Prof. Szykulski.

The oldest finds are represented by a massive stone tools made by the Middle Palaeolithic communities (200 thousand - 40 thousand years ago). Archaeologists have also discovered smaller stone products from later periods, as well as millstones, stone grinders and fragments of pottery from the Neolithic. [...] Science & Scholarship in Poland

Canada. 12,000-year-old campsite found near N.B. highway

Archeologists have unearthed a campsite thought to be more than 12,000 years old next to a stretch of highway near Fredericton, N.B., and the rare find could fill a critical gap in Canada’s Maritime history.

Evidence of the ancient encampment was first spotted two years ago by workers building a highway bypass. The province’s Department of Transportation issued a stop-work order and shifted construction to avoid disturbing the site.

Now, three weeks into the dig, a fully intact fire pit containing ancient charcoal, along with arrow heads and a stone tool for cleaning animal hides have been found among over 600 artifacts.

Brent Suttie, the provincial archeologist leading the 22 member team, says the ground underneath his tarps used to form the shores of a glacier lake larger than any in New Brunswick today.

“This gives us our only glimpse into what people were doing during this time period,” he told CTV Atlantic... (Video) CTV News / Link 2 (Videos)

Actualización: Ancient tools found near Route 8 now believed to be 12,700 years old - CBC News

1/3. (Philip Drost/CBC)

Ancient tools and artifacts uncovered along Route 8 near Fredericton have turned out to be older than expected.

The artifacts are now believed to be 12,700-years-old, 700 years older than previously thought, said Brent Suttie, the director of the archeological services branch in the Department of Tourism, Heritage and Culture.

"We were fortunate enough to find a fire pit … and a living floor that confirm that the area was occupied between 12,600 and 12,700 years ago," said Suttie...

Exploring the prehistory of Palawan Island through human remains

1/3. Copyright : Witthaya Phonsawat

Researchers are excavating human remains from caves in Palawan Island in the Philippines to learn more about the diversity of burial and other cultural practices over the past 10,000 years.

Since 2004, archaeologists from the University of the Philippines Diliman (UPD) have systematically excavated and processed human remains from caves in northern Palawan Province. So far, this work has yielded numerous human skeletal materials ranging in age from the late Palaeolithic (9,000 Before Present), through the Neolithic (~4,000 BP) and Metal Periods (~1,000 BP), to the late millennium. [...] researchsea.com

The people who ate elephant heads

Remains of a straight-tusked elephant (Credit: FunkMonk/CC by SA 3.0)
During the Stone Age, an elephant’s pate was the best meal on the menu

Ancient humans dined out by eating the massive heads of now extinct elephants.

According to new research, people living in Palaeolithic times, commonly known as the Stone Age, hunted elephants as a valuable source of food.

As well as eating their bodies, they made the most of the animals’ huge heads.

They scooped out and ate the elephants’ brains, but also their trunks, tongues, glands, and even their skulls and lower jaw bones.

That helps explain why early humans transported elephant heads with them as they travelled between sites.

The extent to which Palaeolithic humans ate elephants has been hotly debated.

It has long been accepted that early humans hunted and ate animals, as vital sources of proteins and fat.

“Carnivory has been a human trait from our earliest stage to today,” say researchers in a paper published in the journal Quaternary International.

But scientists have questioned whether elephants were too big to kill. Instead of actively hunting them, early humans might instead have scavenged the remains of dead elephants killed by age or other predators.

Now a new study not only concludes that elephants were hunted, but that their heads [...] BBC - Earth 

Eastern Africans Hunted with Poison-Tipped Arrows at least 13,000 Years Ago

Four of the projectile point fragments recovered from Kuumbi Cave: (A, C and G) impact fractures; (B and D) possible retrieval cut marks; (E) rounded tip; (F) post-depositional fracture revealing bone surface; (H) change in surface appearance. Magnification: A, C, G, and H at 65x; B at 85x; D at 100x; E at 200x. Image credit: Michelle C. Langley et al.

A team of archaeologists studying bone artifacts discovered in a cave on the island of Unguja in the Zanzibar archipelago of Tanzania has found evidence to suggest that bone tools were used for hunting, and even as poison arrow tips.

Bone technology was essential to a Stone Age man’s lifestyle and has been shown to have been in use 60,000 years ago.

The majority of the evidence to support this has been found in sites in southern Africa, but now 13,000-year-old artifacts found in a large limestone cave known as Kuumbi show that this technology was being adopted in eastern Africa as well.

The team, led by Dr. Michelle Langley from the Australian National University, investigated a small assemblage of seven bone artifacts — five bone projectile points, a bone awl, and a notched bone tube — recovered from the Kuumbi Cave.

By analyzing the finds with a camera and microscopes, the scientists were able to compare the manufacture techniques and wear to previous discoveries and to attempts to replicate this technology in the lab.

Their findings, published in the journal Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa, showed that the bone projectile points are likely to have been used for poison arrows, partly due to the slender and short nature of the arrow heads, and partly supported by a previous discovery of charcoal from the Mkunazi plant, which is known to have poisonous fruit. [...] Sci-News.com

Actualización: Hace 13.000 años se usaban flechas con veneno en Zanzíbar Su estudio morfológico indica que de otro modo serían demasiado pequeñas para abatir a sus presas 

No podemos evitarlo, nos gustaría conocer los más nimios detalles de cómo era la vida en la Prehistoria. Desde cómo fabricaban sus herramientas a sus estrategias de caza, e incluso su menú. En el archipiélago de Zanzíbar se han localizado en una cueva abundantes útiles de hueso que han sido estudiados en profundidad, tanto para comocer su tecnología de fabricación como para dilucidar cómo fueron usados. Las abundantes puntas de proyectil de hueso encontradas resultan finas y cortas como para causar heridas mortales a grandes mamíferos, por lo que sus investigadores creen que se usaban junto con veneno para hacerlas más efectivas...

UTM professor discovers new origins for farmed rice

Credit: © kazoka303030 / Fotolia
Chew on this: rice farming is a far older practice than we knew. In fact, the oldest evidence of domesticated rice has just been found in China, and it’s about 9,000 years old. The discovery, made by a team of archaeologists that includes University of Toronto Mississauga anthropology professor Gary Crawford, sheds new light on the origins of rice domestication and on the history of human agricultural practices.

“Today, rice is one of most important grains in the world’s economy, yet at one time, it was a wild plant…how did people bring rice into their world? This gives us another clue about how humans became farmers,” says Crawford, an anthropological archaeologist who studies the relationships between people and plants in prehistory.

Working with researchers from the Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology in Zhejiang Province, China and Fudan University in Shanghai, Crawford found the ancient domesticated rice fragments in a probable ditch in the lower Yangtze valley. [...] University of Toronto Mississauga / Link 2 

Actualización: Explorando el origen del cultivo agrícola del arroz — Noticias de la Ciencia y la Tecnología 
....  la evidencia más antigua de arroz domesticado (o sea adaptado a su cultivo agrícola) acaba de encontrase en China, y tiene unos 9.000 años. El hallazgo aporta nuevos y esclarecedores datos sobre los orígenes de la domesticación del arroz y sobre la historia de las prácticas agrícolas humanas.

El descubrimiento lo ha hecho un equipo de arqueólogos que incluye al profesor Gary Crawford, de la Universidad de Toronto en Mississauga, Canadá, un arqueólogo y antropólogo que estudia las relaciones entre las personas y las plantas en la prehistoria.

Los autores del estudio pasaron unos tres años explorando un yacimiento arqueológico de cinco hectáreas, en la zona baja del valle del Yangtsé, y allí encontraron los citados restos antiquísimos de arroz domesticado.

Observaron que aproximadamente el 30 por ciento del material de la planta del arroz, incluyendo las cáscaras y la epidermis de la hoja, no era silvestre, sino que mostraba signos de que las plantas habían sido seleccionadas y cultivadas a propósito para obtener variedades de planta de arroz que fueran duraderas y adecuadas para el consumo humano. Este hallazgo indica que la domesticación del arroz ha estado en marcha durante mucho más tiempo de lo que se creía previamente. Los restos de planta del arroz analizados en el nuevo estudio también tenían características del arroz japónica, el tipo utilizado en el sushi que se cultiva hoy en día en Japón y Corea. Esto clarifica el linaje de esta variedad específica de arroz, y confirma por primera vez que se forjó en esta región de China.

Mohenjo Daro | Official Trailer

UTV Motion Pictures and Ashutosh Gowariker Productions Present Mohenjo Daro starring Hrithik Roshan and Pooja Hegde The film is directed by Ashutosh Gowariker and releases on August 12, 2016.

During the Pre-historic Indus Valley, in 2016 BC, the evil greed of a man is about to destroy one of the oldest cities in the ancient world, Mohenjo Daro. A young indigo farmer, Sarman, enters the city and meets Chaani, the daughter of the Priest, predicted to be the Origin of a New Society. Sarman, in his attempt to win Chaani's love, uncovers the secrets nobody was ever supposed to know - about Chaani, about Mohenjo Daro and about his own past!

MOHENJO DARO is a story of an ancient love and our past, present and future! ... dnaindia.com

Vídeo añadido a PaleoVídeos > L.R.2.10. nº 39. 

WATCH: This is humanity's origin story

Humans. We have been around for a while now. When we think about our past we think about ancient civilizations, the pyramids, stuff like that. But this is only a tiny, tiny part of our history... ScienceAlert

Video: What Happened Before History? Human Origins- Kurzgesagt – In a Nutshell
PaleoVídeos > L.R.2.10 nº 38.

Estudian los carnívoros salvajes para interpretar los de yacimientos prehistóricos europeos

El Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre Evolución Humana (CENIEH) ha iniciado una nueva línea experimental con carnívoros salvajes para caracterizar las modificaciones causadas por estos animales en yacimientos arqueológicos prehistóricos.

Ruth Blasco, especialista en Tafonomía del CENIEH, lidera esta nueva línea experimental con animales salvajes en el Pirineo catalán con el objetivo de simular escenarios para establecer modelos de las actuaciones de grandes y pequeños carnívoros y extrapolar los resultados obtenidos a yacimientos arqueológicos pleistocenos europeos, ha explicado el CENIEH a través de un comunicado.

Ambos predadores intervienen sobre los animales con la misma finalidad nutritiva y, por ello, algunas de las evidencias dejadas a su paso son similares. [...] EFE futuro

Vídeo: Ruth Blasco del CENIEH habla sobre Neotafonomía - CENIEH
 Ver en PaleoVídeos > L.R.1.12 nº 13.

La cueva de Atxurra estará cerrada al publico, pero se hará una réplica como la de Altamira


La Diputación de Bizkaia construirá una reproducción en tres dimensiones de la caverna, ubicada en Berriatua, para que los visitantes puedan contemplar los 70 grabados prehistóricos de gran valor arqueológico

La cueva de Atxurra, ubicada en Berriatua, en la que se han encontrado «como mínimo» 70 grabados prehistóricos de gran valor arqueológico, permanecerá cerrada al público, pero la Diputación construirá una réplica en tres dimensiones (3D) para exhibir su contenido, similar a la de Altamira en la localidad cántabra de Santillana del Mar. La diputada foral vizcaína de Euskera y Cultura, Lorea Bilbao, ha comparecido hoy ante la comisión correspondiente de la Juntas Generales, a petición del Grupo Mixto, para explicar el hallazgo de estas pinturas y las medidas que tomará al respecto la institución foral a partir de ahora.

Bilbao ha asegurado que mantener la cueva cerrada para visitas «no es un capricho» y ha explicado que únicamente tendrán acceso grupos de espeleólogos y arqueólogos, ya que no se descarta que se encuentren más pinturas. «Se trata de un gran descubrimiento arqueológico, que nos ha situado en el mapa mundial», ha resaltado, y ha explicado que ha despertado interés en todo el mundo, y como ejemplo ha citado a grupos de Malasia, Chile, Francia, Cuba o Turquía.

Dicho interés «refuerza la prudencia» y la decisión de no permitir visitas, ya que el acceso a la zona de la cueva donde se ubican las pinturas es complicada y entraña riesgos, además de que la presencia de grupos humanos «puede alterar sus condiciones». En los próximos 6 u 8 meses, los expertos continuarán con el trabajo dentro de la cueva y al cabo de dicho período de tiempo, cuando se sepa «si se cumplen o no las expectativas», se decidirá el siguiente paso a seguir. En este tiempo, la Diputación construirá una réplica en 3D que se entregará al municipio de Berriatua para su exhibición al público [...] El Correo

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